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Portuguese was used only as a lingua franca and as the language of the administration, education and the media, coexisting with the African languages in a diglossic situation.

Therefore, unlike Naro and Scherre (2000), I argue that the original source of variable concord phenomena in DVP is indeed African. It was also during the last three decades of the 19 th century that the first investments were made in developing an embryonic net of internal communications, such the railways connecting Luanda with the interior in 1887 (Alexandre and Dias 1998: 114). The head noun in Cokwe can be replaced by free person markers (i.e. DOC 225 Porquê? Whereas traditional grammar (e.g. There is also variation in the pronunciation of 1PL forms in the present subjunctive in EP, which are sometimes pronounced ['pɔ.sɐ.muʃ] instead of [pu'sɐ.muʃ]. In fact, the analysis of the data suggests that Cokwe, like most languages in the Bantu branch, does not overtly mark the present (Nurse 2006a: 99) but rather has an unmarked or zero present, which consists of a marker in the TA 2 slot and neutral FV a. 28, 44 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION MAP 5 Cokwe-speaking areas in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia (Wastiau 2006: 6) Firstly, sources were produced in different periods and may therefore represent different stages of development of the language. (Naro and Scherre 2000: 237) However, an analysis of the DVP data shows that an explanation of this kind applied to DVP could only account for the lack of agreement in examples (282a) to (283a) and (284a), where the subject is, respectively, post-verbal and complex. 57 The meaning of the word arena is unknow. DOC 11 E tens quantos anos? For example, 2SG/PL forms do indeed show a high degree of variation in EP (e.g. The precise linguistic consequences of this influx of Brazilians in the 95, 111 CHAPTER 3 A SOCIOLINGUISTIC HISTORY OF ANGOLA AND LUNDA NORTE colony are unknown, but it is significant that as late as the 19 th century a number of travellers noted the similarity between Brazilian and Angolan Portuguese (cf. US1 57 # 1 Sim. PRT: cantaram [kã'ta.rãw] they sang vs. PLUP: cantara he had sung [kã'ta.rɐ]). Outside these areas, especially in rural areas and in the interior of the country, the majority of the population continues to use African languages in their daily life, even if they have varying degrees of proficiency in Portuguese, which they use as a second language (L2). Another distinctive feature in Gärtner s work is his analysis of AVP s development and synchronic structure not only in comparison to EP but also to BP and Mozambican Portuguese (MP), which leads him to conclude that, despite some minor synchronic details, they have all developed in very similar ways: Partimos da pressuposição de que os fenômenos análogos no português do Brasil são devidos a causas análogas.

(Óscar Ribas in Laban 1991: 34). XXX, 390 APPENDIX III: LINGUISTIC CORPUS SAMPLE 46 Vou desligar agora. 152 O alfaiate perguntou: 153 "Já chega?" Chorus 49 Agora sou eu naquela parte que-- [laugh] INF13 50 Olha a ^G! While not developing a full theoretical model to account for AVP s origins and synchronic structure, Silva Neto (1957 [1986]) nonetheless provides some valuable insights into the cause/effect relationship between sociolinguistic factors and different degrees of restructuring, even if not clearly defining them. Unless we accept, against all existing evidence, that all Bantu languages share the exact same structure, this approach can only offer a simplistic account of the substrate contribution to the restructuring of AVP. First, the European language can undergo language drift and as its different regional and social varieties come into contact it can undergo primary leveling. ID_nº: 0008 Title "Dª Carochinha and O costureiro" Aud_file_ID 8_d2_dvp_2004_aud.wav Duration 00:10:09.07 Rec_date Rec_place Living room at the Governor's guest house in Dundo. # DOC1 64 #2 Então vá. Linguística - Revista de Estudos Linguísticos da Universidade do Porto (2): Gonçalves, Perpétua and Christopher Stroud (eds) Panorama do português oral de Maputo. The last stage was highly relevant because it brought about the mass movement of people due to the war and political, technical, social, economic and cultural changes favoring innovation 31, especially in the capital. Person-number paradigm in DVP TENSE P/N CATEGORIES P/N MORPHEMES PRT IND Other PRT IND Other 1SG -u 2SG/PL, 3SG/PL -u All 1PL -mo 5.4. According to Corbett (2000) the Animacy Hierarchy constrains number in three important ways: I. by Jean-Michel Massa and Matthias Perl, pp Rennes: Université de Haute Bretagne 'A língua falada como força motriz do desenvolvimento do português angolano'. Carvalho, José G. Herculano de 'Os estudos dialectológicos em Portugal nos últimos vinte anos'. In turn, there are several tendencies that have been attested in AVP but that do not occur in L1 DVP (i.e. # DOC1 274 #2 Não há pescadores, mas há peixe.

A endemia de 1581, devida em grande parte à fome, segundo o P e. Baltasar Afonso, vitima, no espaço de oito meses, cerca de 100 portugueses e 40 angolanos do exército conquistador e, ao fim do ano, já tem imoladas duas partes dos 300 soldados brancos. The SM is obligatory regardless of whether the lexical subject is present or not because it encodes agreement with the subject.

791 É o seguinte: eh... a classe de assimilado 792 compreendia o seguinte: indivíduos, negros, que naquela altura, 793 antes da nossa independência, mesmo no tempo da da escravatura, tiveram aquela possibilidade de estudar. Madrid/Frankfurt am Main: Iberoamericana/Vervuert Verlag. 390 Até ele (es)tá coiso-- INF ^Sagrada Esperança {i.e. Em outros casos há-de se pensar na transposição de fenômenos do substandard do português europeu para o Brasil, Angola e Moçambique. In these contexts a second não can occur after the verb, as illustrated in examples (315) and (316), respectively: (315) EP: Order: Vai pôr a mesa! (133) EP: Dir-lhe-ia para ir ao médico. IMP: começa start vs. PRS SBJV comeces vs. PRS IND. 14 Other labels for these extensions include dative or prepositional for the applicative, associative for the reciprocal, separative for the reversive, intransitive or neuter for the stative and contactive for the reciprocal (Nurse 2008: 37).


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