takaya honda skin pigmentation

(2007) isolated the MYB (MdMYB10) gene. The PCR was performed in a total volume of 20 μl containing 50 ng of cDNA, 200 μM dNTPs, 150 μM MgCl2, 2.5 μM of each primer, 0.5 U of AmpliTaq Gold (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) and GeneAmp PCR buffer II (Applied Biosystems). Because F1 progeny between the ‘Delicious’ × Mitsubakaido cross have not yet borne fruits, we could not compare the MdMYBA marker and their skin colors at present. In fruitlets of ‘Tsugaru’, we could not detect any MdMYBA transcripts despite apparent anthocyanin accumulation (Fig. Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pBin19-sgfp, which contains... To elucidate the role of phytohormones during bud dormancy progression in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), we investigated changes in phytohormone levels of indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and t-zeatin (tZ). phase, i.e., rapid enlargement, sprouting, and flowering. For protein synthesis, MdMYBA was amplified with Taq polymerase and ligated into the pIVEX 1.3 WG vector (Roche Diagnostics). 2006). 1B, except for the presence of a motif similar to KPRPR[S/T]F (at positions 132–138 in the deduced amino acid sequence, data not shown), which was defined as a conserved motif in the genes that encode the proteins AN2, AtPAP1, AtPAP2 and AtMYB113 (Stracke et al. To ascertain the role of MdMYBA, transient gene expression assays were used. Therefore, the reddish-purple spots that we observed in the apple cotyledons were not artifacts, but rather they truly resulted from the induction of anthocyanin accumulation by MdMYBA. These results indicated that MdMYB10 and MdMYBA could be different genes derived from different loci and that the preferable expression of either MdMYBA or MdMYB10 is genetically regulated depending on the apple cultivar/species.

4C). 2006). The PCR product was cloned into the pCR2.1 vector using a TA cloning kit (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA, USA) and sequenced. Indeed, previous observations indicated that MYB transcription factors functioned as an activator for bHLH transcription, therefore MYB efficiently formed a complex with bHLH and the resultant complex could successively induce anthocyanin biosynthesis (Koes et al. 3C). However, a discrepancy between MdMYBA and MdMYB1 was observed in the expression in the skin at the young fruitlet stage. initiated at different times. 1999, Borevitz et al. Here, we found that PpDAM1 upregulated expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (PpNCED3), which is a rate-limiting gene for abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) gave rise to a full-len... Several lines of evidence suggest different allocations of the physiological roles of aminopropyl transferase genes, SPMS and ACL5 in plants. Recently, Takos et al. To discover how, when and what kind of disorder/damage occur in pear flower buds, we observed axillary flower buds of two cultivars, 'Kosui' (a mid-chill cultivar) and 'Niitaka'... ‘Kurenainoyume’ is a new red-fleshed apple cultivar with a gradually increasing cultivation area. Transgenic plants were selected based on kanamycin resistance.

The best-characterized plant MYB genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are C1 and PL in maize. Takaya Honda (born 6 September 1987) is an Australian actor and television presenter. We thank Mutsuko Kimura and Kaoru Monma (National Institute of Fruit Tree Science) for technical assistance, and Dr. Shozo Kobayashi (National Institute of Fruit Tree Science) for valuable suggestions throughout the experiments. For isolation of the gene for the MYB transcription factor, we used the ‘Tsugaru’ cultivar of Malus × domestica (a pale-red cultivar) and, for functional analysis, we used both ‘Tsugaru’ and ‘Jonathan’ (deep-red cultivars). and their accumulation is positively correlated with the expression level of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes.

We detected two types of MdMYBA alleles: one of 656 bp (no red allele: corresponding to a1) and one of 723 bp (red allele: corresponding to A1). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xyl... We analyzed the transcriptome of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) ‘Kousui’ leaf buds during the dormancy transitional phases using a 10K cDNA microarray. Meanwhile, no differences between MdMYB1-1 and MdMYB1-2 were detected in the first intron (Takos et al. In maize, the accumulation of anthocyanin in competent tissues requires the presence of either C1 in the seed or PL in the plant tissue (Cone and Burr 1989). 1A). Leaf buds were collected in October (deep endodormancy) and February (ecodormancy). Recently, Walker et al. 2000). Over 1000 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.05, ≥2-fold change).

Collected skin samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then were stored at −80°C until they could be used for RNA isolation. only in the skin from ripened fruits of ‘Jonathan’ (Fig. ‘Kosui’ flower buds were released from endodormanc... An efficient method for the generation of adventitious shoots from the cotyledons of Japanese pear and related species was developed. Fruits from ‘Tsugaru’ were harvested at 93 and 122 DAFB in 2004 and at 16, 37, 60, 79, 102 and 116 DAFB in 2005. 2001). The 5′-RACE and 3′-RACE were carried out with 5′ and 3′ gene-specific primers which were designed based on the partial sequence of the MYB transcription factor gene. All fruits were obtained from the orchard of the National Institute of Fruit Tree Science at Morioka, Japan, in 2004, 2005 and 2006. The shape of each petal of all the transgenic plants became more triangular than that of the wild type, and, consequently, lobation of the flower petals was more apparent in all seven transformants (Fig. Protoplasts isolated from immature fruits at 28–32 days after full bloom (DAFB) showed high GUS activity... Shizuoka Professional University of Agriculture. For Northern blot analysis, total RNA was isolated from various tissues and from the fruit skins of ‘Tsugaru’, ‘Jonathan’, ‘Maypole’ and Malus × domestica niedzwetzkyana using the same method as described above. In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) ‘Kosui’, three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering The present review highlights some recent advances regarding the function of polyamines in the environmental stress tolerance of plants. In addition to the MYB-binding site, one bHLH-binding site was located near the MYB-binding sites (positions −195 to −200 in the sequence of the F2 fragment; Fig.

The primer set (forward, 5′-ATTCTAGGTGTCTTTCTGGAGTGTA-3′ for the 5′ non-coding region; reverse, 5′-AGGTCCAATTTCCGTACAATG-3′ for the second intron region) was designed based on the sequences of ‘Tsugaru’ and used to amplify the polymorphic fragments. The molecular marker linkage map from the cross ‘Delicious’ × Mitsubakaido (Malus sieboldii) (M. Igarashi of the Aomori Green BioCenter, unpublished data) was used to map MdMYBA. The stained tissues were treated with pure ethanol several times for bleaching. (2006) isolated the MYB (MdMYB1) gene, whose nucleotide sequence in the ORF was the same as that of MdMYBA (Fig. The result of sequencing of this third band shows that it contains recombinant molecules between the 723 and 656 bp bands. 8). In addition, the binding signal was reduced by adding high concentrations of the non-specific competitor poly[d(A–T)] and was inhibited by the non-labeled F2 fragment (Fig. Environmental factors have been intensively investigated, and both UV-B (280–320 nm) irradiation and low temperatures are important factors that stimulate the production of anthocyanins (Saure 1990, Lancaster 1992). 3C). After pre-PCR heating at 95°C for 12 min, a reaction cycle of 94°C for 30 s, 55°C for 30 s, and 72°C for 1 min was repeated 40 times. The resultant construct (pIVEX 1.3 WG-MdMYBA) was used for MdMYBA protein synthesis using the RTS 100 Wheat Germ CECF Kit (Roche Diagnostics) according to the manufacturer's instructions. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature, shading, defoliation, and crop load on red coloration of th... We investigated the effect of fruit bagging treatment using three kinds of paper bags differing in light permeability on the red coloration of skin, flesh, and core in type 2 red-fleshed ‘Kurenainoyume’ apples by comparison with type 1 ‘Goshogawara’ apples. A 10 μg aliquot of genomic DNA was digested with BamHI, EcoRV or KpnI, and electrophoresis was carried out in a 0.8% (w/v) agarose gel and the products transferred to a nylon Hybond N membrane (Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, NJ, USA) by means of capillary transfer. Anthocyanin concentrations in the two cultivars used in Fig. 2003, Mathews et al. treated with methylglyoxal... Polyamines have been shown to be involved in a variety of plant physiological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses.

bHLH and bZIP), as shown in the preliminary experiment by Espley et al. The BC226 genotype and skin color (R, red skin; Y, yellow or green skin) of each apple cultivar are shown. 1995, Abe et al. Director: Jonnie Leahy Writer: Monica Zanetti The Steve Jaggi Company A feature film about A straight-laced young woman, in fierce denial of being diagnosed with terminal melanoma, finds herself carried away on an impulsive adventure by a queer stranger. were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). In this report, we designated 17°C as the low-temperature treatment and 27°C as the high-temperature treatment. We tested most frequently used genes in the literature such as β-Tubulin, Histone H3, Actin, Elongation factor-1α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, together with newly added genes Annexin, SAND and TIP41. We investigated histone modification in the DAM homolog (PpMADS13-1) from Japanese pear, via chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR, to understand the mechanism behind the reduced expression of the PpMADS13-1 gene toward endodormancy release.

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