Later, the Rainbow Coalition was joined nationwide by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the Brown Berets, A.I.M., and the Red Guard Party. Fredrick Allen Hampton (August 30, 1948 – December 4, 1969) was an American activist and revolutionary socialist. Hampton was quickly attracted to the Black Panthers' approach, which was based on a Ten-Point Program that integrated black self-determination with class and economic critique from Maoism.  A total of nine police officers were shot; 19-year-old Panther Spurgeon Winter Jr. was killed by police, and another Panther, Lawrence S. Bell, was charged with murder. 50 Years Later, the Fight Against Police Brutality Continues", "Fred Hampton to Barack Obama: The Illinois Black Panther Party, the Original Rainbow Coalition, and Racial Coalition Politics in Chicago", Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia, "Edward Hanrahan, Prosecutor Tied to '69 Panthers Raid, Dies at 88", https://libguides.depaul.edu/ld.php?content_id=10135864, "The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther", "“Exclusive – Hanrahan, Police Tell Panther Story". Pascal Sabino is a Report for America corps member covering Austin, North Lawndale and Garfield Park for Block Club Chicago. You are correct that Pratt was not at central headquarters that morning. © Provided by ABC 7 Chicago In 1969, the FBI Special Agent in Charge (SAC) in San Francisco wrote Hoover that the agent's investigation had found that, in his city at least, the Panthers were primarily feeding breakfast to children. Hampton, drugged by barbiturates, was sleeping on a mattress in the bedroom with his fiancée, Deborah Johnson, who was nine months pregnant with their child. Njeri was eight and a half months pregnant when officers busted into the two-flat at 2337 W. Monroe Street, killing Hampton and Mark Clark, and injuring four others. O'Neal had slipped the barbiturate sleep agent secobarbitol into a drink that Hampton consumed during the dinner, in order to sedate Hampton so he would not awaken during the subsequent raid. "The police assault on the black community is horrendous.". Informant William O'Neal provided them with detailed information about Hampton's apartment, including the layout of furniture and the bed in which Hampton and his girlfriend slept. In the early 1990s, Deborah Johnson was interviewed about the raid by Jose Cha Cha Jimenez, former president and co-founder of the Young Lords Organization. Every dime we make funds reporting from Chicago’s neighborhoods. Fred Hampton, head of the Chicago Black Panther Party, and Mark Clark, of the Peoria chapter, were shot to death in a December 1969 bloody, pre-dawn police raid on Hampton’s apartment.
 Twenty-eight defendants were named, including Assistant DA Hanrahan as well as the City of Chicago, Cook County, and federal governments. The memorial also served as a tribute to the community-building work that Hampton led in Chicago, and the nationwide advances that the Black Panther Party made in providing social services to black people in an era where institutional racism deprived many communities from accessing public resources. The officers directed their gunfire at the remaining Panthers who had been sleeping in the north bedroom (Satchel, Anderson, Brewer and Harris). O'Neal left at this point, and, at about 1:30 a.m., December 4, Hampton fell asleep mid-sentence talking to his mother on the telephone.  Hanrahan had recently been strongly criticized by Hampton, who said that Hanrahan's talk about a "war on gangs" was really rhetoric used to enable him to carry out a "war on black youth". Artists that have mentioned Hampton in their music include: This article is about the 1960s activist. As the National Archives charts, the charismatic Hampton had by the age of 20 already completed a successful stint with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to join the Chicago Chapter of the Black Panther Party and rise to the position of chairman of the Illinois Chapter. "I remember what Fred said, 'You have to keep the revolution alive, you have to keep struggling,'" recalled Joan McCarty, an original Black Panther member in Chicago. in droves. The police raided the apartment in the early morning of December 4, 1969. Attorney Paul Wolf has commented on a nearly identical raid in Los Angeles. He said he felt it was his civic duty.  Civil rights leaders and spokesmen for the black community were reported to have been disappointed with the selection. In his eulogy, Jackson noted that "when Fred was shot in Chicago, black people in particular, and decent people in general, bled everywhere. O'Neal's main task: ingratiate himself with the Illinois Chapter of the Black Panther Party, led by Fred Hampton. Since August 6, a trailer for the film Judas and The Black Messiah has been picking up views on YouTube. The police fired a barrage into the quiet apartment killing the two Panther leaders and wounding all of the other occupants. Hampton's funeral was attended by 5,000 people, and he was eulogized by such black leaders as Jesse Jackson and Ralph Abernathy, head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. “If you’ve ever been under gunfire, five minutes is five hours. Originally titled Jesus Was My Homeboy, the biopic of Fred Hampton's life stars Daniel Kaluuya and Lakeith Stanfield as activists Fred Hampton and William O'Neal. It is due to be released in 2021. He seems to have thought about himself as a law enforcement person.”, The little-known truth about Black Panther activist Fred Hampton. I am not aware of such an incident however such activity is sadly too common in America today. Each year, supporters of the late chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party memorialize the anniversary of his death, dubbed International Revolutionary Day, with a vigil at the site of the police raid, 2337 W. Monroe St. When he and fellow Black Panthers later followed police in his community supervision program, watching out for police brutality, they used his knowledge of law as a defense. In early October, Hampton and his girlfriend, Deborah Johnson (now known as Akua Njeri), pregnant with their first child (Fred Hampton Jr.), rented a four-and-a-half-room apartment at 2337 West Monroe Street to be closer to BPP headquarters.
Another document outlined a deal that the FBI brokered with the US deputy attorney general to conceal the FBI's role in the killing of Hampton and the existence of COINTELPRO. As documented by PBS, Hampton also was the first to propose the idea of the Rainbow Coalition, which Jesse Jackson and Barack Obama would co-opt as Rainbow/Push. " Gus Savage said that such a man to whom the community could relate need not be black. Hampton's effective leadership and talent for communication marked him as a major threat to the FBI. Photo's are of Fred Hampton Jr. visiting his father's grave on Father's Day. , Shortly after the raid, Cook County coroner Andrew Toman began forming a special six-member coroner's jury to hold an inquest into the deaths of Hampton and Clark. Clark was on security duty at the front door of the apartment and was shot and killed instantly when the raid began. stopped another voice unfamiliar to me said, ‘He’s good and dead now,'”
These charges were subsequently dropped. Michael Newton is among those writers who have concluded that Hampton was assassinated. “The fact that neither the state’s attorney nor the police have been indicted for their roles in the planning and execution of the raid…raises disturbing questions about the degree to which improper police or prosecutorial conduct is presently subject to any orderly system of correction and control.”, “It is very difficult legally to justify the vast amount of shooting throughout the apartment by police when only one shot can be ascribed with confidence to any occupant.”, “The police who removed the bodies received their instructions from the State’s Attorney’s Office….By moving the bodies in the apartment from the locations in which they died, and then removing them from the premises entirely, the police on the scene severely hampered the coroner’s ability to perform his duty of determining the immediate and underlying cause of death. We say you don't fight capitalism with no Black capitalism; you fight capitalism with socialism.". A 1969 speech given by Hampton shows that a lot of his radical vision was lost over the years: "We've got to face the fact that some people say you fight fire best with fire, but we say you put fire out best with water. The survivors were reported to have refused to testify during the inquest because they faced criminal charges of attempted murder and aggravated assault during the raid. Decades later, the federal government, Cook County, and City of Chicago paid a $1.8 million settlement to Clark and Hampton's families, along with the survivors.  The two families each shared in the settlement. Over the next year, Hampton and his friend and associates made a number of significant achievements in Chicago. In exchange for having his felony charges dropped and a monthly stipend, O'Neal agreed to infiltrate the BPP as a counterintelligence operative. These are selected by the writer and confirmed by the editor. people began to institute it,” Njeri said.
It also launched a disinformation program to forestall formation of the Rainbow Coalition, but the BPP did make an alliance with the Young Patriots and Young Lords. The FBI certainty pegged Fred Hampton as a possible threat to America's order. O'Neal reported to his superiors that much of the Panthers' "provocative" stockpile of arms was stored there and drew them a map of the apartment. Afterward, as was typical, several Panthers went to his Monroe Street apartment to spend the night, including Hampton and Deborah Johnson, Blair Anderson, James Grady, Ronald "Doc" Satchell, Harold Bell, Verlina Brewer, Louis Truelock, Brenda Harris, and Mark Clark. Portions of the book may be read free online at NorthOmahaHistory.com. Akua Njeri speaks at the memorial for Chairman Fred Hampton.  In 1968, he was on the verge of creating a merger between the BPP and a southside street gang with thousands of members, which would have doubled the size of the national BPP. One of the documents released after the break-in was a floor plan of Hampton's apartment.
Elmer “Geronimo Jiga” Pratt, was not at the L.A. raid. The film deals with the period when the FBI was circling Hampton, the agency's eventual raid of the Black Panther hideout, and the assassination of the revolutionary activist. The FBI's sights had been set on Hampton for a while. At 4:45 a.m., they stormed into the apartment. It said that the refusal of the surviving Black Panthers to cooperate hampered the investigation, and that the press "improperly and grossly exaggerated stories". Primary category in which blog post is published, Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Lincoln Square, North Center, Irving Park, Learn more about Civil’s Credibility Indicators, City Warns Of Election Night Protests — But Few In Works So Far, You Can’t Drink In A Bar Right Now, But Some Can Vote In One At Bucktown’s Club Lucky Tavern, Coronavirus Kill 68 More Illinoisans And 6,516 New Cases Reported.
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